Daniel 11:23 Index
"And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people."
Research Material

"After the league made with him..."

  • Rome continued her conquest of the world, bringing Judea into submission, and destroying Jerusalem in A.D. 70. Rome was to rule longer than any other power up to that time -- from 168 B.C. to A.D. 476.... Imperial Rome made treaties with other nations to protect and promote mutual interest. Rome assumed the role of friend and protector, only to "work Deceitfully"... by turning their agreements to her own advantage. She often imposed the burdens of conquest on her "allies", but usually reserved the rewards of conquest for herself. Eventually these "allies" were absorbed into the Roman Empire. "...for a time" (Daniel 11:24) --- a considerable period of time, in fact -- no "...strongholds" (Daniel 11:24), were able to withstand the determined pressure of the invincible legion of Rome. (KC 131-132)
  • [Continuing] the chronological view of the prophetic narrative of Daniel 11, [we] find a reference here to the Roman policy of arranging what today would be called mutual assistance pacts, as, for example, the league of assistance and friendship with the Jews. In these treaties the Romans recognized the participants as "allies," and the treaties were intended, presumably, to protect and promote mutual interests. Rome thus appeared in the role of friend and protector, only to "work deceitfully" by turning these agreements to her own advantage. She often imposed the burdens of conquest o her "allies," but usually reserved the rewards of conquest for herself. Eventually these "allies" were absorbed into the Roman Empire. (4BC 871)
  • The "him" with whom the league is made, must be the same power which has been the subject of the prophecy from Daniel 11:14, the Roman Empire. That this is true has been shown in the fulfillment of the prophecy in the three individuals who successively ruled over the empire - Julius, Augustus, and Tiberius Caesar. (US 258)
  • Now that [Daniel] has taken us through the secular events of the Roman Empire to the end of the seventy weeks of Daniel 9:24, he takes us back to the time when the Romans became directly connected with the people of God by the Jewish league in 161 B.C. From this point we are then taken through a direct line of events to the final triumph of the church and the setting up of God's everlasting kingdom. Grievously oppressed by the Syrian kings, the Jews sent an embassy to Rome to solicit the aid of the Romans and to join themselves in "a league of amity and confederacy with them" (1 Maccabees 8; Humphrey Prideaux, The Old and New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews, Vol. II, p. 166). The Romans listened to the request of the Jews, and granted them a decree couched in these words: (US 258)
    • "'The decree of the senate concerning a league of assistance and friendship with the nation of the Jews. It shall not be lawful for any that are subject to the Romans to make war with the nation of the Jews, nor to assist those that do so, either by sending them corn, or ships, or money; and if any attack be made upon the Jews, the Romans shall assist them, as far as they are able; and again, if any attack be made upon the Romans, the Jews shall assist them. And if the Jews have a mind to add to, or to take away anything from, this league of assistance, that shall be done with the common consent of the Romans. And whatsoever addition shall thus be made, it shall be of force.' This decree 'was written by Eupolemus, the son of John, and by Jason, the son of Eleazar, when Judas was high priest of the nation, and Simon, his brother, was general of the army. And this was the first league that the Romans made with the Jews, and was managed after this manner.'" (Flavius Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews," book 12, chap. 10, sec. 6, The Works of Flavius Josephus, p. 374). (US 259)
  • At this time the Romans were a small people, and began to work deceitfully, or with cunning, as the word signifies. But from this time they rose steadily and rapidly to the height of power. (US 259)