Daniel 8:9 Index
"And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land."
Research Material

"...out of one of them..."

  • [This] phrase... refers back to the four winds in Daniel 8:8. Since the Little Horn power pushed to the south, east, and north, it had to come from the west. History records that Cassander's kingdom, pushed "...toward the south," Egypt fell to Rome in 30 B.C., pushed "...toward the east," Syria fell to Rome in 65 B.C., and pushed north "..toward the Glorious Land," Palestine fell to Rome in 63 B.C. Of the four leading generals, Cassander proved to be the strongest. His kingdom grew to become the mighty Roman Empire.... (KC 98-99)
  • ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES: In Daniel 2; 7; 8; 11, all the world empires appear in the same order: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Pagan Rome, the divided kingdoms, and Papal Rome. Deviating from this order causes the prophecies to lose harmony and creates great confusion. Some people attempt to interject Antiochus Epiphanes as the Little Horn power. This makes it impossible to understand what the prophecies represent. The beasts represented in these prophecies symbolized world powers. They are not individuals. Antiochus Epiphanes was not a world empire; he was one in a series of Selucid kings. The same "...Little Horn" appears in Daniel 7:21, 22, 26 and continues until the glorious Second Coming of Jesus. Antiochus Epiphanes was resting in his grave for about 164 years before the first coming of Christ. Furthermore, people today are familiar with the Grecian Empire and most are aware of the Persian Empire (Persian Gulf), few today would recognize Antiochus Epiphanes. If this power were greater than all the previous powers, it should be well known in history. However, most people need to find Antiochus Epiphanes in an encyclopedia to know who he was. On the other hand, most people are familiar with the Roman power -- both church and state. (KC 99-100)
  • [This] passage... simply states that from one of the four points of the compass would come another power.... Inasmuch as the vision of Daniel 8 closely parallels the prophetic outlines of Daniel 2 and Daniel 7, and inasmuch as in both those outlines the power succeeding Greece is Rome (Daniel 2:40; Daniel 7:7), the reasonably assumption here is that the "horn" power of Daniel 8:8 also applies to Rome. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that Rome precisely fulfilled the various specifications of the vision. (4BC 841)
  • In the division under consideration, the prophet sees a little horn coming forth from one of these four [winds]. Here is brought to view the power symbolized by the fourth beast of [Daniel 7]. In his first vision the fourth beast was so terrible and had such a strange appearance that Daniel asked for a clearer explanation of its work. (SNH 125)

"...came forth a little horn..."

  • HORNS: "Horns" is frequently used to symbolize divisions, or nations, that develop out of a great parent kingdom. Thus the ten horns appearing on the fourth beast of Daniel 7 (compare the paralleling beasts of Revelation 13 and Revelation 17) are expressly stated to be ten kingdoms; or divisions, that would arise out of the territory of the fourth world kingdom. (Froom 33)
  • This little horn represents Rome in both its phases, pagan and papal. Daniel saw Rome first in its pagan imperial phase, warring against the Jewish people and the early Christian, and then in its papal phase, continuing down to our own day and into the future, warring against the true church. (Daniel 8:13, 23). (4BC 841)
  • A third power is here introduced into the prophecy. In the explanation given to Daniel by the angel this symbol is not described as definitely as are Medo-Persia and Greece. (US 156)
  • NOT ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES:
    • 1. If Antiochus Epiphanes does not fulfill the specifications of the prophecy, the application cannot be made to him. The little horn [will] come out of one of the [four winds (Daniel 8:8), not one] of the four horns of the goat. It was therefore a power existing distinct from any of the... horns of the goat. Was Antiochus such a power? (US 156)
    • 2. Who was Antiochus? From the time that Seleucus made himself king over the Syrian horn of the goat, until that country was conquered by the Romans, twenty-six kings ruled in succession over the territory. The eighth of these was Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiochus, then, was simply one of the twenty-six kings who constituted the Syrian horn. Hence he could not at the same time be a separate and independent power, or another and remarkable horn, as was the little horn. (US 156)
    • 3. If it were proper to apply the little horn to any one of these twenty-six Syrian kings, it should certainly be applied to the most power and illustrious of them all; but Antiochus Epiphanes was not by any means the most powerful king of the Syrian line. Although he took the name Epiphanes, that is, "The Illustrious," he was illustrious only in name. Nothing, says Prideaux, on the authority of Polybius, Livy, and Diodorus Siculus, could be more alien to this true character; because of his vile and extravagant folly, some thought him a fool and changed his name from Epiphanes, "The Illustrious," to Epimanes, "The Madman." (Humphrey Prideaux, The Old and New Testament Conned in the History of the Jews, Vol. II, pp. 106, 107) (US 156-157)
    • 4. Antiochus the Great, the father of Epiphanes, being defeated in a war with the Romans, was able to procure peace only by the payment of a prodigious sum of money and the surrender of part of his territory. As a pledge that he would faithfully adhere to the terms of the treaty, he was obliged to give hostages, among whom was Epiphanes, his son, who was carried to Rome. The Romans ever afterward maintained this ascendancy. (US 157)
    • 5. The little horn of the goat was to wax exceeding great; but Antiochus Epiphanes did not become exceeding great. On the contrary, he did not enlarge his dominion, except by some temporary conquest in Egypt. These he immediately relinquished when the Romans took the part of Ptolemy and commanded him to desist from his designs on that territory. The rage of his disappointed ambition he vented upon the unoffending Jews. (US 157)
    • 6. The little horn, in comparison with the powers that preceded it, was exceeding great. Persia is simply called great, though it consisted of a hundred twenty-seven provinces, (Esther 1:1). Grecia, being more extensive still, is called very great. Now the little horn, which waxed exceeding great, must surpass them both. How absurd, then, to apply this to Antiochus, who was obliged to abandon Egypt at the dictation of the Romans. It cannot take long for anyone to decide the question which was the greater power -- the one which evacuated Egypt, or the one which commanded that evacuation. (US 157)
    • The little horn was to stand up against the Prince of princes, which expression refers, beyond controversy, to Jesus Christ. (Daniel 9:25; Acts 3:15; Revelation 1:5). But Antiochus died one hundred sixty-four years before our Lord was born. The prophecy cannot therefore apply to him, for he does not fulfill the specifications in a single particular. The question may then be asked, 'Why has anyone ever tried to apply it to him?' We answer, Roman Catholics take the view to avoid the application of the prophecy to themselves; and many Protestants follow them, apparently in order to oppose the doctrine that the second advent of Christ is now at hand. (US 158)
  • LITTLE HORN DENOTES ROMAN:
    • It has been an easy matter to show that the little horn des not denote Antiochus Epiphanes. It will be [just] as easy to show that it does denote Rome. (US 158)
    • The field of vision [in Daniel 8] is substantially the same as that covered by Nebuchadnezzar's image of Daniel 2, and the vision of Daniel 7. On both these prophetic delineations [Daniel 2 and Daniel 7] we have found that the power which succeeded Grecia as the fourth great power was Rome. The only natural inference would be that the little horn, the power which in this vision succeeds Grecia as an "exceeding great" kingdom, is also Rome. (US 158)
    • The little horn comes forth from one of the [four winds (Daniel 8:8) not one of the four divisions of the Grecian Empire].... Earthly governments are not introduced into prophecy until they become in some way connected with the people of God. Rome became connected with the Jews, the people of God at that time, by the famous Jewish League in 161 B.C. But seven years before this, that is, in 168 B.C., Rome had conquered Macedonia, and made that country a part of its empire. [Thus Rome did not come out of the Macedonian Empire because Rome conquered Mac doni a, but one of the four winds.] (US 158)
    • The little horn waxed great toward the south. This was true of Rome. Egypt was made a province of the Roman Empire in 30 B.C., and continued such for some centuries. (US 159)
    • The little horn waxed great toward the east. This also was true of Rome. She conquered Syria in 65 B.C., and made it a province. (US 159)
    • The little horn waxed great toward the pleasant land. So did Rome. Judea is called "the pleasant land" in many scriptures. The Romans made it a province of their empire in 63 B.C., and eventually destroyed the city and the temple, and scattered the Jews throughout the earth. (US 159)
    • The little horn "waxed great, even to [against] the host of heaven; and cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground." (Daniel 8:10). Rome did this also. In this expression two figures are introduced, "the host" and "the stars." When used in a symbolic sense concerning events taking place on earth, these figures refer almost always to the people of God and their leaders. In Daniel 8:13 we read that both the sanctuary and the host will be trodden under foot. Here undoubtedly reference is made to God's people and the place of their worship. The stars would naturally represent the leaders of the work of God. This thought is further indicated in one of the applications of Revelation of Revelation 12:4 where we read that the great red dragon, a symbol of Rome, cast down a third part of the stars to the ground. (US 159)
    • The little horn "magnified himself even to the Prince of the host" (Daniel 8:11). Rome alone did this. In the interpretation of Daniel 8:25 the little horn is said to "stand up against the Prince of princes." This is clearly an allusion to the crucifixion of our Lord under the jurisdiction of the Romans. (US 159)
    • See Daniel 8:11 for more additional information.
    • Rome meets all the specifications of the prophecy (Daniel 8:9-12). No other power does meet them. Hence Rome, and no other, is the power in question. The inspired descriptions given in the word of God of the character of this system are fully met, and the prophecies concerning it have been most strikingly and accurately fulfilled in history. (US 162)

"...which waxed exceeding great..." (2 Thessalonians 2:4)

  • In his second vision the little horn is not named (Daniel 7:19), but its work as a kingdom is still further portrayed. One feels while reading both the vision and the interpretation of the little horn, that he is coming into the presence of a power greater and more terrible than any which had hitherto existed. The accumulated forces of the evil of past ages is concentrated in this rising power, which waxed exceeding great (Exodus 34:7). It was in truth the masterpiece from Satan's workshop. Four thousand years of trial had not passed in vain. As heaven was about to be emptied in the gift of the Saviour (John 3:16), so all the fiendishness of the lower world was brought into play to counteract the love of God and destroy the effect of the sacrifice (Acts 13:10). There is a world of meaning in the words of the angel. (SNH 125-126)
  • Said Gabriel, "His power shall be mighty, but not by his own power" (Daniel 8:24). No merely human power could do what this kingdom did. As light and love and power come from above to those whose eyes are directed heavenward (John 3:7), so a power from beneath (Revelation 13:2) takes possession of individuals and nations which resist the love of God (Ephesians 2:2). This kingdom "waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land" (Daniel 8:9). Rome extended her territory around the Mediterranean; there was no place where her arms were not victorious. Some of the greatest battles which history records were fought by the Roman armies (Daniel 7:29). The pen of Inspiration says, "He [the little horn] shall destroy wonderfully" (Daniel 8:24). Cities which dared resist the power of Rome were blotted out of existence. In describing the government, the angel said, "He shall prosper and practice" (Daniel 8:24), and "through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand" (Daniel 8:25). (SNH 126)

"...toward the south..."

  • Egypt was long an unofficial protectorate of Rome. Her fate was already in Rome's hands in 168 B.C., when Antiochus Epiphanes, who was seeking to make war on the Ptolemies, was ordered out of the country. Egypt, still under the administration of its Ptolemaic rulers, was a pawn of Roman Eastern policy for many years before it became, in 30 B.C., a Roman province. (4BC 841-842)

"...toward the east..."

  • The Seleucid Empire lost its western most lands to Rome as early as 190 B.C., finally became the Roman province of Syria in 65 B.C., or shortly thereafter. (4BC 842)

"...and toward the pleasant land."

  • Either Jerusalem or the land of Palestine is here referred to.... Palestine was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 63 B.C. (4BC 842)